Holiday!

Mamy pierwszy weekend wakacji dla wszystkich tych, którzy szczęśliwie jeszcze uczęszczają do szkoły! Będzie zatem o wakacjach, czyli HOLIDAY lub VACATION jak wolą Amerykanie.


Dla Brytyjczyków termin HOLIDAY (często używany w liczbie mnogiej) odnosi się do okresu czasu kiedy nie chodzi się do szkoły lub pracy, czyli po naszemu - do WAKACJI lub URLOPU. Amerykanie nazywają ten okres czasu mianem VACATION. W USA termin HOLIDAY lub NATIONAL HOLIDAY jak najbardziej funkcjonuje, ale w nieco innym pojęciu. Odnosi się on do DNIA WOLNEGO OD PRACY: "July 4th is a holiday, isn't it?" W Wlk. Brytanii taki dzień zwany jest mianem A BANK HOLIDAY. Zarówno Amerykanie jak i Brytyjczycy nazywają takie dni - A PUBLIC HOLIDAY. Kiedy zatem Amerykanie mówią o THE HOLIDAYS lub o THE HOLIDAY SEASON, mają na myśli święta, np. Boże Narodzenie (CHRISTMAS).

Słowo HOLIDAY jest zazwyczaj policzalne i możemy używać go w liczbie mnogiej: A HOLIDAY/HOLIDAYS, jednak gdy oznacza w brytyjskim angielskim PŁATNY URLOP jest niepoliczalne i nie występuje w liczbie mnogiej - "How much paid holiday are you entitled to?"

Wracając zatem do wakacji... Na wakacjach możemy BYĆ - BE ON HOLIDAY/VACATION, możemy też na wakacje pojechać - GO ON HOLIDAY/VACATION.  Możemy też dodawać różne przymiotniki do słowa HOLIDAY aby je nieco bardziej zawęzić, np.:

school holiday
Easter holiday
winter/summer holiday
package holiday (wakacje zorganizowane)
working holiday
activity holiday
adventure holiday
 

Ludzie spędzają wakacje - SPEND HOLIDAYS w przeróżnych miejscach, np. nad morzem - AT THE SEASIDE lub w górach - IN THE MOUNTAINS. W pewnym momencie trzeba też z nich wrócić, czyli COME BACK FROM HOLIDAYS. 

Co ciekawe dla nas, ale na pewno nie obce językowi angielskiemu - słowo HOLIDAY/VACATION może być też czasownikiem!

They were holidaying/vacationing in Egypt.

Mamy też coś, co się zwie TAX HOLIDAY, czyli wakacje podatkowe (okres kiedy firma jest zwolniona z podatku, szczególnie na początku swojej działalności)

Co ciekawe, od kilku lat w Stanach z powodzeniem funkcjonuje słowo STAYCATION odnoszące się do wakacji spędzanych w domu: 16 THINGS TO DO ON A STAYCATION.

Warto pamiętać, że URLOP po angielsku to też LEAVE. Możemy mieć urlop zaległy - OUTSTANDING LEAVE, bezpłatny - UNPAID LEAVE, macierzyński - MATERNITY LEAVE, wychowawczy - UNPAID EXTENDED POST-MATERNITY LEAVE lub w końcu - zdrowotny - SICK LEAVE.

Nie może zabraknąć MADONNY przy tej okazji... ;)

HOLIDAY!

Holiday, celebrate
Holiday, celebrate

If we took a holiday
Took some time to celebrate
Just one day out of life
It would be
It would be so nice

Everybody spread the word
We're gonna have a celebration
All across the world
In every nation
It's time for the good times
Forget about the bad times, oh yeah
One day to come together
To release the pressure
We need a holiday

If we took a holiday
Took some time to celebrate (common let's celebrate)
Just one day out of life (holiday)
It would be
It would be so nice

If we took a holiday (oh yeah, oh yeah)
Took some time to celebrate (common let's celebrate)
Just one day out of life (just one day out of life)
It would be
It would be so nice

You can turn this world around
And bring back all of those happy days
Put your trouble down
It's time to celebrate
Let love shine
And we will find
A way to come together
And make things better
We need a holiday

If we took a holiday (holiday)
Took some time to celebrate (common let's celebrate)
Just one day out of life (just one day out of life)
It would be
It would be so nice

Oh yeah, oh yeah
Common let's celebrate
We have got to get together

Holiday, celebrate
Holiday, celebrate

If we took a holiday (oh yeah, oh yeah)
Took some time to celebrate (common let's celebrate)
Just one day out of life (holiday)
It would be
It would be so nice

2 komentarze :

Verbs of the senses

I've written about STATE VERBS quite recently and this is a kind of a follow up topic. VERBS OF THE SENSES belong to the group of STATE VERBS, or so called non-progressive verbs. There are five basic verbs of the senses: LOOK, FEEL, SMELL, TASTE and SOUND

 

It looks like a watering can



What can we add to the verbs of senses?



ADJECTIVE

They look great!
She feels tired.
The soup smells bad.
It tastes good!
It sounds interesting.

 
Those figs look delicious!



LIKE + (ADJECTIVE) + NOUN

They look like doctors.
This material feels like cotton.
It smells like coffee.
This pasta tastes like real Italian pasta.
This music sounds like reggae.



BE CAREFUL!!!
FELL LIKE can also mean WANT, e.g.:

I feel like a cup of coffee, what about you? = I want a cup of coffee, what about you?
I don't feel like swimming today. = I don't want to swim today.


 
She looks as if she is yawning.


AS IF / AS THOUGH / LIKE + CLAUSE

They look as though they have been running.
She feels as if she has been sleeping for ages!
It smells like something is burning!
It tastes as though you have overcooked it.
It sounds as if somebody was drilling.



Foster the People
Coming of age


Well, I see you standing there like a rabid dog
And you got those crying eyes
Makes me wanna surrender and wrap you in my arms
You know I try to live without regrets
I'm always moving forward and not looking back
But I tend to leave a trail of death while I'm moving ahead

And so I'm stepping away
(Ahhhh...)
'Cause I got nothing to say

Feels like, feels like it's coming
It feels like, feels like I'm coming of age
Feels like, feels like it's coming
It feels like, feels like I'm coming of age

And when my fear pulls me out to sea
And the stars are hidden by my pride and my enemies
I seem to hurt the people that I care the most
Just like an animal I protect my pride
When I'm too bruised to fight
And even when I'm wrong I tend to think I'm right

Well I'm bored at the game
And too tired to rage

Feels like, feels like it's coming
It feels like, feels like I'm of coming of age
Feels like, feels like it's coming
It feels like, feels like I'm of coming of age




You might also be interested in reading this post about non-progressive verbs:


0 komentarze :

FOOTBALL!!!

Probably the most popular, the most global, the most fascinating and the most exciting sport in the world. I would also say that it's the most 'sociable' sport ever invented. Since the Football World Cup in Brasil has been going on for a few days, why not write about football vocabulary




PEOPLE AND POSITIONS

GOALKEEPER defends the goal by trying to catch the ball (in different ways)

DEFENDERS try to do their best not to allow the opposite team score a goal

MIDFIELDERS are positioned between the defenders and the forwards (strikers)

FORWARDS/STRIKERS/ATTACKERS whose principal role is to score goals (with different results;)

SWEEPER/LIBERO is the defender whose main role is to protect the space between the goalkeeper and the rest of the defence 

CAPTAIN or SKIPPER is the player who leads the team and participates in the coin toss at the beginning of the match.

COACH is supposed to train and prepare the team to win ;)

ASSISTANT COACH helps the COACH

HEAD FITNESS COACH monitors the fitness level of the team

GOALKEEPER COACH trains the goalkeepers

REFEREE presides over a match together with ASSISTANT REFEREES and the FOURTH OFFICIAL (additional assistant who can take over in case one of the referees can't proceed)

SUBSTITUTES take part in the game when somebody from the FIRST TEAM has to leave the field, on average they spend time sitting on the BENCH.

12th MAN are the fans of a football team



THE FIELD





SET PIECES

Set piece is a DEAD BALL (situation when a game is restarted after a stoppage) routine. In football set pieces include:

FREE KICKS which is a result of a FOUL outside the PENALTY AREA

CORNER KICKS which are kicks taken from the radius of the corner flag. It's a result of putting the ball behind your own goal line without a goal being scored

PENALTY KICKS which are kicks taken 11 metres from the goal awarded when a team commits a foul inside its own penalty area

THROW-INS which involves a player throwing the ball from behind the touchline after the ball has been kicked out by an opponent



OTHER TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS


ADDED TIME or STOPPAGE TIME is the time added at the end of a half of the match compensating for the lost time during the game.

ARMBAND is worn by the team's captain to show his role

ASSIST is a pass that results in a goal being scored

BENCH is the area where the team's coaches and substitutes sit

BEND THE BALL means to strike the ball in such a way that it bends or spins in the air




BICYCLE KICK or OVERHEAD KICK by Zlatan Ibrahimović




BRACE is when a player scores two goals in a single match

CHANCE or OPPORTUNITY is when a player can shoot a goal with a realistic prospect of scoring a goal


CHIP THE BALL


A CLEAN SHEET is when the opposite team hasn't been able to score any goals against you.

CLEARANCE is when a player kicks the ball away from the goal they are defending

CROSS is the delivery of the ball into the penalty area by the attacking team, usually from the area between the penalty box and the touchline


CROSSBAR is the horizontal bar across the top of the goal

DERBY is a match between two local rivals

DISSENT is a breach of the Laws of the Game

DIVING is a form of cheating, it's when a player throws himself to the floor as though they have been fouled (when they haven't of course)

DRIBBLING is when a player runs with the ball at their feet under close control


DUMMY is a skill move performed by a player receiving a pass from a teammate; the player receiving the ball will angle their body in such a way that the opponent thinks they are going to play the ball. The player will then intentionally allow the ball to run by them to a teammate close by without touching it, confusing the opponent as to which player has the ball.


EQUALISER is a goal that makes the score even

EXTRA TIME is the additional period, normally two halves of 15 minutes, used to determine the winner of the match

FAVOURITE is the team which is expected to win the match or the competition

FC stands for Football Club

FIELD is the PITCH

FIFA stands for International Federation of Association Football

FINAL WHISTLE is the sound made by the referee to finish the match

FIRST ELEVEN is the set of 11 players who would start playing in the match

FIXTURE is a scheduled match which is yet to be played

FLICK-ON is when a player receives a pass from a teammate and, instead of controlling it, touches the ball with their head or foot while it is moving past them, with the intent of helping the ball reach another teammate



FORMATION is how the players in a team are positioned on the pitch

FOX IN THE BOX or A GOAL POACHER is the striker who has excellent scoring ability

FOUL is a breach of the Laws of the Game by a player, punishable by a free kick or penalty. 

FRIENDLY is a match arranged by two teams which has no competitive value

GHOST GOAL is a situation where a ball fairly crossed the goal line but did not result in a goal, or a goal was awarded despite the ball not crossing the line
 
GOALPOST are the vertical bars at either side of the goal

GROUP OF DEATH is a group in a competition which includes very strong teams

HALF-TIME is a break between two halves of a match

HANDBALL is when a player deliberately touches the ball with his hand

Maradona's Hand of God


HAT-TRICK is when a player scores three goals in a single match

HEADER is when the player uses his head to touch the ball


 Robin van Persie's equalising header
 

HOLD UP THE BALL is when a player, usually a forward, receives a long ball from a teammate, and controls and shields it from the opposition, with the intent of slowing the play down to allow teammates to join the attack

HOOLIGANS are fanatical supporters known for violent behaviour

HOWLER is a glaring and amusing error made by a player or a by a referee

INTERCEPT means to prevent a pass from reaching its intended recipient

KEEPIE-UPPIE is the skill of juggling the football


a keepie-uppie


KICK OFF means to start the match

LAWS OF THE GAME are codified rules that help define association football 

MATCH FIXING is an expression used to describe the situation when a match is played to a completely or partially pre-determined result motivated by financial incentives paid to players, team officials or referees in violation of the rules of the game

MEXICAN WAVE is a self-organised crowd activity in which spectators stand up, raise their hands in the air, and sit down in sequence

NUTMEG is when a player intentionally plays the ball between an opponent's legs, runs past the opponent, and collects their own pass

How to perform a nutmeg


OFFSIDE relates to the positioning of defending players in relation to attacking players when the ball is played to an attacking player by a teammate. In its most basic form, a player is offside if they are in their opponent's half of the field, and is closer to the goal line than both the second-last defender and the ball at the moment the ball is played to them by a teammate



ONE-ON-ONE is a situation where the only player between an attacking player and the goal is the opponent's goalkeeper

OWN GOAL is when a player scores a goal against their own team, usually as the result of an error

Marcelo's own goal
 

PARKING THE BUS is an expression used when all the players on a team play defensively, usually when the team is winning by a narrow margin

PASS is when a player kicks the ball to one of their teammates

PENALTY SHOOTOUT is a method of deciding a match in a knockout competition, which has ended in a draw after full-time and extra-time. Players from each side take it in turns to attempt to score a penalty against the opposition goalkeeper. Sudden death is introduced if scores are level after five penalties have been taken by either side

PLAY ACTING is similar to diving, play-acting is deceiving the officials that a player is injured to try to gain an advantage or force the referee to punish the "aggressor"

THE POZNAŃ is a celebration which involves fans turning their backs to the pitch, joining arms and jumping up and down in unison. It takes its name from Polish club LECH POZNAŃ, whose fans are thought to be the first to celebrate in this way



RED CARD is awarded to a player for either a single serious cautionable offence or following two yellow cards. The player receiving the red card is compelled to leave the game for the rest of its duration, and that player's team is not allowed to replace him with another player. A player receiving the red card is said to have been sent off or ejected

SAVE is when a goalkeeper prevents the football from crossing the goal line between the goalposts

SHIN PADS are a mandatory piece of equipment, usually made of plastic or rubber, worn underneath the socks in order to protect the shins

A shin pad

SOCCER is an alternative name for the sport of association football

STUDS are small points on the underneath of a player's boots to help prevent slipping

STUDS



TACKLE is a method of a player winning the ball back from an opponent, achieved either by using a leg to wrest possession from the opponent, or making a slide tackle to knock the ball away

TIKI-TAKA is a style of play characterised by short passing and movement, working the ball through various channels and maintaining possession. The style is primarily associated with Spanish club FC BARCELONA and the Spanish national team

UEFA is an acronym for Union of European Football Associations

UNDERDOG is the team that is not expected to win a particular game or competition

ULTRAS are a type of football fans predominantly found in Europe renowned for their fanatical support and elaborate displays at football matches

WALL is a row of defensive players who line up 10 yards away from a free kick, covering a portion of the goal, with the intent making it more difficult for an attacking player to have a shot on goal direct from the free kick

WINGER is a wide midfield player whose primary focus is to provide crosses into the penalty area

X-RATED CHALLENGE is a malicious tackle when a player has possible motivation to injure an opponent

YELLOW CARD is  shown by the reeree to a player who commits a cautionable offence. If a player commits two cautionable offences in a match, they are shown a second yellow card, followed by a red card, and is sent off. Also known as a caution or a booking


2 komentarze :

Non-progressive verbs

Non-progressive verbs to nic innego jak czasowniki, które nie występują w formie ciągłej, czyli z końcówką -ING. Niektóre z nich prawie nigdy nie mają tej końcówki, co oznacza, że nie wystepują w czasach typu CONTINUOUS, podczas gdy inne nie mają końcówki -ING jedynie w niektórych ze swoich znaczeń. Zajmiemy się obiema tymi grupami.

 

This orange looks tasty!


Wiele czasowników typu NON-PROGRESSIVE to tzw. czasowniki stanu, czyli STATE VERBS, czasowniki opisujące stany mentalne - MENTAL (STATE) VERBS lub te opisujące zmysły, czyli SENSE VERBS.

Czasowniki, które zazwyczaj nie występują w czasach ciągłych to:

(W nawiasach podałam znaczenia w których końcówka -ing nie występuje)


BELIEVE (WIERZYĆ)
DOUBT (WĄTPIĆ)
FEEL (PRZECZUWAĆ)
IMAGINE (WYOBRAŻAĆ SOBIE)
KNOW (ZNAĆ/WIEDZIEĆ)
LIKE (LUBIĆ)
LOVE (KOCHAĆ)
HATE (NIENAWIDZIĆ)
PREFER (WOLEĆ)
REALIZE (ZDAWAĆ SOBIE SPRAWĘ Z)
RECOGNISE (ROZPOZNAWAĆ)
REMEMBER (PAMIĘTAĆ)
SEE (ROZUMIEĆ)
SUPPOSE (PRZYPUSZCZAĆ)
THINK (UWAŻAĆ)
UNDERSTAND (ROZUMIEĆ)
WANT (CHCIEĆ)
WISH (ŻYCZYĆ)

APPEAR (WYDAWAĆ SIĘ/WYGLĄDAĆ)
HEAR (SŁYSZEĆ)
LOOK (WYGLĄDAĆ)
SEE (WIDZIEĆ)
SEEM (WYDAWAĆ SIĘ)
SMELL (PACHNĄĆ)
SOUND (BRZMIEĆ)
TASTE (SMAKOWAĆ)

AGREE (ZGADZAĆ SIĘ)
ASTONISH (ZADZIWIAĆ/ZDUMIEWAĆ)
DENY (ZAPRZECZAĆ)
DISAGREE (NIE ZGADZAĆ SIĘ)
IMPRESS (IMPONOWAĆ)
MEAN (ZNACZYĆ/OZNACZAĆ)
PLEASE (PROSZĘ/ŻYCZYĆ SOBIE)
PROMISE (OBIECYWAĆ)
SATISFY (ZADOWALAĆ)
SURPRISE (ZASKAKIWAĆ)

BE (BYĆ)
BELONG (NALEŻEĆ)
CONCERN (DOTYCZYĆ)
CONSIST (SKŁADAĆ SIĘ)
CONTAIN (ZAWIERAĆ)
DEPEND (POLEGAĆ/ZALEŻEĆ)
DESERVE (ZASŁUGIWAĆ)
FIT (PASOWAĆ)
INCLUDE (ZAWIERAĆ)
INVOLVE (WIĄZAĆ SIĘ/DOTYCZYĆ)
LACK (BRAKOWAĆ)
MATTER (MIEĆ ZNACZENIE)
MEASURE (MIERZYĆ - w znaczeniu np. ta ściana mierzy/ma 2 metry)
NEED (POTRZEBOWAĆ)
OWE (BYĆ DŁUŻNYM/ZAWDZIĘCZAĆ)
OWN (POSIADAĆ)
POSSESS (POSIADAĆ)
WEIGH (WAŻYĆ -  w znaczeniu np. ona waży 60 kg)


W powyższych znaczeniach ów czasowniki nie występują w czasach ciągłych (continuous). Jednak wiele z tych czasowników posiada inne znaczenia, tzw. czynne. Oznacza to, że wtedy mogą występować z końcówką -ING bez żadnych przeszkód:


I see you. (Widzę cię.) 
I'm seeing you.

I'm seeing my friends tomorrow. (Spotykam się jutro z przyjaciółmi.)




I hear you. (Słyszę cię.)
I'm hearing you.

The judge is hearing the case. (Sędzia przysłuchuje się rozprawie.)




The soup tastes and smells great! (Ta zupa świetnie smakuje i pachnie!)
The soup is tasting and smelling ....

I'm tasting and smelling the soup... (Próbuję i wącham zupę...)




You look tired. (Wyglądasz na zmęczonego.)
You look tired.

I'm looking at this photo and... (Patrzę na to zdjęcie i ...)




I feel that we shouldn't do that. (Mam przeczucie, że nie powinniśmy tego robić.)
I'm feeling that...

I'm feeling good today / I feel good today. (Dobrze się dziś czuję.)*
*tutaj możemy użyć dwóch form bez zmiany znaczenia




I think it is important. (Uważam, że to ważne.)
I think it is important.

I'm thinking about selling the house and moving out of the city. (Zastanawiam się nad sprzedaniem domu i wyprowadzeniem się z miasta.)




I have a dog. (Mam psa.)
I have a dog.

I'm having breakfast now. (Jem teraz śniadanie.)




I enjoy going to parties. (Lubię chodzić na prywatki.)
I'm enjoying going to parties.

I'm enjoying this party! I don't want to leave yet.  (Podoba mi się ta prywatka! Nie chcę jeszcze wychodzić.)




Ok, na tym etapie trzeba przyznać jednak, że coraz częściej w języku potocznym ww. czasowniki można usłyszeć z końcówką -ING nawet wtedy gdy ich znaczenia nie są 'czynne'. Najlepszym przykładem jest czasownik LOVE. Na pewno każdy z was kojarzy slogan pewnej restauracji fast food, który brzmi: "I'm lovin' it", co jest niczym innym jak 'I am loving it' i oznacza 'kocham to!'. Czasownik LOVE został tutaj użyty w czasie Present Continuous nieco na wyrost, zgodnie z zasadami nie powinno sie powiedzieć: "I love it!". Jednak slogan wszedł do języka na dobre i teraz często można usłyszeć takie kwestie:

- How do you like your new phone?
- I'm loving it! It's awsome!

Do tej pory jednak nie powiemy "I'm loving my husband". Prawdopodobnie formy ciągłej używamy do opisania swojego 'uwielbienia' do czegoś co posiadamy od niedawna i  czym się teraz 'nie możemy nacieszyć.' Tak przynajmniej wynika z analizy korpusu językowego i przykładów tam się pojawiających.


6 komentarze :

The sounds of English

I have found a perfect webpage for you to learn English sounds. You have a video with all the explanations and examples. The speaker speaks quite slowly and gives you time to repeat. The webpage comes from BBC of course. You can select any sound you want to practice - each one is equipped with a video!


Ps. You can also download a video or a poster with sounds as well as do some exercises!

Click on the link below and simply enjoy!


2 komentarze :

Jak się uczyć słuchania, czyli gimnastyka dla uszu.

Kilka pomysłów na to jak czynnie, a nie tylko biernie ćwiczyć rozumienie ze słuchu.




Weźmy pierwszy lepszy raport prasowy z CNN na U Tube. Jednym z moich zainteresowań jest literatura, więc od razu zdecydowałam się na mini reportaż o życiu zmarłej poetki i pisarki Maya Angelou. (Man nadzieję, że Wy wybierzecie po prostu coś, co Was zainteresuje najbardziej;)

Oto mój materiał do słuchania i oglądania:



1. Zanim jeszcze zacznę słuchać, zastanawiam się co już wiem na dany temat ( w moim przypadku, przypomniałam sobie wszystko co wiem na temat Maya Angelou i zerknęłam do wikipedii aby ta wiedze poszerzyć). Wszystko to robimy w celu przygotowania się do słuchania i 'wprowadzeniu' się w tematykę materiału. Nie będziemy dzięki temu zaskoczeni pewnymi informacjami i łatwiej będzie nam je zrozumieć.

2. Fajnym ćwiczeniem jest zadanie sobie kilku pytań na temat danego materiału i zapisanie ich na kartce papieru. Czego chielibyście się dowiedzieć? Co spodziewacie się usłyszeć? W moim przypadku zapisuję następujące pytania:

How did she die?
What was her personal life like?
What hardship did she go through?


2. Warto najpierw przesłuchać sobie materiał na spokojnie, nie przejmując się tym, że nie wszystko jest dla nas jasne. Po prostu skupiamy się na tym, aby zrozumieć ile się da i dowiedzieć się ogólnie o czym jest dany materiał.

3. Jeśli trzeba oglądam ponownie i sprawdzam, czy znalazłam odpowiedzi na wcześniej postawione sobie pytania. UWAGA! Postarajcie się odpowiadać sobie na głos! Inaczej nie będzie to miało większego sensu.

4. Oglądam po raz kolejny, ale tym razem stawiając sobie za cel wynotowanie pojedyńczych słów, które po prostu zwrócą moją uwagę. Notuję zatem:

CELEBRATED POET
MISSOURI
AGE OF SEVEN
RAPED
MOB
MY VOICE HAD KILLED HIM
SILENCE
EGYPT
NEWSPAPER EDITOR
MALCOLM X
1968
...CAGEBIRD SINGS
GEORGIA, GEORGIA
ADAPTATION
TONY AWARD
OBAMA
CLINTON
INAUGURATION
CREATED HER NAME

Pamiętajcie, że możecie sprawdzić sobie pisownię danych wyrazów na bieżąco w google lub w słowniku. Pisownia nie jest jednak tutaj dla nas najważniejsza.

Po wysłuchaniu i zanotowaniu sobie słów, opowiadam sobie na głos (!) historię - w moim przypadku opowiadam sobie życiorys Maya Angelou wykorzystując po kolei słowo po słowie, które wynotowałam wcześniej. Nie przejmuję się jak czegoś nie pamiętam. Po skończeniu 'opowiadania' mogę odnaleźć w nagraniu dany moment i przypomnieć sobie o co chodziło.

5. Ostatnim ćwiczeniem jakie robię jest dyktando. Słucham nagrania i staram się zanotować ze słuchu całe zdania tak jak potrafię, jeśli czegoś nie wiem, szukam w słowniku. Słucham danych fragmentów tyle razy ile to konieczne, aż będę zadowolona z efektu. Dyktanda są szalenie pomocne w nauce rozumienia ze słuchu. Często jednak są przez nas niesłusznie niedoceniane i pomijane. Warto się do nich przekonać.


Pamiętaj!
Słuchaj tyle razy ile chcesz i ile potrzebujesz! Jedni potrzebują mniej a inni muszą posłuchać kilka razy więcej, żeby zrozumieć tyle samo. Ważne jest to, żeby ćwiczyć.

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How languages evolve - a brilliant TED lesson with some language-related vocabulary

I have come across this one very recently and decided to share it with you immediately since the lesson is packed with some nice language-related vocabulary! Watch, do the THINK exercise and memorize some vocabulary!

The Tower of Babel

The Lesson 

 




Some expressions from the lesson:


LANGUAGES EXISTING TODAY CAN BE TRACED BACK TO

korzenie dzisiaj istniejących języków sięgają...


HOW DID WE END UP WITH SO MANY (LANGUAGES)?

Jak to się stało, że mamy tyle języków?


SPLIT INTO MANY GROUPS

podzieliły się na wiele grup


FRESH GAME AND FERTILE LAND

FRESH GAME to nie 'świeża gra'! ;) GAME to 'dzika zwierzyn'a lub 'dziczyzna' obecnie :), tak więc mamy tutaj:
świeża zwierzyna i żyzna ziemia


ENCOUNTERING DIFFERENT NEIGHBOURS

napotykając różnych sąsiadów

SPREAD OUT

rozprzestrzeniać się

COMMON ANCESTOR

wspólny przodek

DETERMINE

ustalać, określać

FALSE COGNATE

błędny wyraz pokrewny


DERIVED FROM A COMMON ROOT

pochodzący / wywodzący się ze wspólnego  źródła


KINSHIP TERMS

terminy pokrewne

BORROWED WORDS

wyrazy zapożyczone

VICE VERSA

vice versa ;) ale zwróćcie uwagę na wymowę!

UNINTELLIGIBLE

niezrozumiały

NEATLY DIVIDED CATEGORIES

klarownie podzielone kategorie

CROSSING BORDERS

przekraczanie granic


DEPENDING ON WHO'S COUNTING

w zależności od tego kto liczy

ARE PRESUMED NOT TO BE RELATED

przypuszcza się, że nie są spokrewnione

SPECULATIVE

oparty na domysłach
 

HOW LANGUAGE CAME ABOUT

jak język powstał

SCATTERED THROUGH THE BABEL OF MIGRATION

rozproszone poprzez wędrówkę z wieży Babel


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