Angielski dla Wymagających

'Mówi się, że...' It is said that...

W tonacji PASSIVE VOICE, czyli strony biernej oraz REPORTED SPEECH o której pisałam wcześniej jest zagadnienie o którym nie sposób nie wspomnieć. Mowa o wyrażeniu 'Mówi się, że...'. Jak to powiedzieć po angielsku? Z jaką konstrukcją w zdaniu trzeba się w takim przypadku liczyć? O tym wszystkim będzie dzisiejszy wpis.


Zacznijmy od przykładów...


[People say that Mike has/will have a lot of money.]

𝟙 It is said that Mike has a lot of money.
𝟚 Mike is said to have a lot of money.

Zwróćcie uwagę, że zdanie w nawiasie jest w czasie teraźniejszym i/lub przyszłym - SAY i HAS/WILL HAVE. To samo musi być odzwierciedlone w zdaniu typu 'Mówi się...'. Stąd w zdaniu 𝟙 mam 'IT IS SAID'. Końcówka tego zdania pozostaje bez zmian.

Tak samo jest w zdaniu 𝟚: 'IS SAID'. Tutaj jednak po 'Mike is said' mamy BEZOKOLICZNIK z TO: 'TO HAVE'. Dzieje się tak zawsze, kiedy w zdaniu typu 'Mówi się...' podmiotem jest osoba lub rzecz o której się mówi, a nie 'IT'.

Reasumując, w języku angielskim możemy 'Mówi się..' wyrazić na dwa sposoby. Możemy zacząć od 'IT IS SAID...' lub 'SOMEBODY/SOMETHING IS SAID TO....'. 

Oczywiście takie zdanie może wystąpić w różnych czasach - przykłady:


[People say that Mike had a lot of money.]

𝟙 It is said that Mike had a lot of money.
𝟚 Mike is said to have had a lot of money.

Jeśli mamy czas przeszły 'HAD', to powinien on być odzwierciedlony w zdaniu 1 i 2.
W zdaniu 2 stosujemy wówczas formę przeszłą bezokolicznika, czyli TO HAVE + 3rd Form.

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[People say that Mike is learning English.]

𝟙 It is said that Mike is learning English.
𝟚 Mike is said to be learning English.

Tutaj mamy czas Present Continuous i formę TO BE + VERB + ING.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[People say that Mike was learning/has been learning English.]

𝟙 It is said that Mike was learning English.
𝟚 Mike is said to have been learning a lot of money.

W tym przypadku mamy dwa czasy - Past Continuous oraz Present Perfect Continuous i odpowiednio formę TO HAVE BEEN + VERB + ING.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[People SAID that Mike had a lot of money.]

𝟙 It was said that Mike had a lot of money.
𝟚 Mike was said to have a lot of money.

[People SAID that Mike was learning English.]

𝟙 It was said that Mike was learning English.
𝟚 Mike was said to be learning English.

Zwróćcie uwagę, że w tych przypadkach zazwyczaj już nie cofamy czasu w drugiej części zdania. Pozostawiamy tam formy teraźniejszych bezokoliczników.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[People SAID that Mike had been learning English.]

𝟙 It was said that Mike had been learning English.
𝟚 Mike was said to have been learning English.

[People SAID that Mike had had a lot of money.]

𝟙 It was said that Mike had had a lot of money.
𝟚 Mike was said to have had a lot of money.

Tutaj jednak, z racji na użycie czasu zaprzeszłego Past Perfect, użyjemy form przeszłych bezokolicznika.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

👉 Zamiast czasownika SAY na początku takiego zdania można użyć innych czasowników, t.j.:

BELIEVE
EXPECT
FEEL
HOPE
KNOW
REPORT
THINK

It is expected that the email will be sent on time.
The email is expected to be sent on time.

It is felt that Prince Harry has made a mistake.
Prince Harry is felt to have made a mistake.

It is reported that 20 people were killed.
20 people are reported to have been killed.

It is thought that the government is ignoring the problem.
The government is thought to be ignoring the problem.







EXERCISE


It is said, an interactive worksheet by monikalach
liveworksheets.com
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