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Kiedy i jak stosować SHALL? SHALL in a NUTSHELL



Kiedy i jak używamy SHALL? 


1. Język 'codzienny':


Bardzo naturalne i powszechne jest stosowanie SHALL w OFERTACH, PROPOZYCJACH i SUGESTIACH:

Shall I do that for you?
Czy mam to dla ciebie zrobić?

Shall we call it a day?
Kończymy na dzisiaj?

Pamietajcie tylko, że są to ZAWSZE pytania i możemy w nich używać JEDYNIE pierwszej osoby liczby pojedynczej lub mnogiej:

Shall she go with us?

SHALL jest również używane w tzw. TAG QUESTIONS - czyli w krótkich pytaniach wstawianych na koniec zdania twierdzącego - jako odpowiednik LET'S:

Let's open it, shall we?
Otwórzmy to.

Let's go now, shall we?
Chodźmy już./Idziemy?


2. W języku biznesowym i przede wszystkim prawniczym (czyli w zdecydowanie bardziej oficjalnym) SHALL jest używane nieco inaczej i przybiera zupełnie inne znaczenie.


SHALL to nic innego jak MUST
SHALL NOT to MUSTN'T

Za pomocą SHALL wyrażamy NAKAZ lub OBOWIĄZEK, podczas gdy SHALL NOT funkcjonuje jako ZAKAZ.

Więcej przykładów z umów w języku angielskim:


"Such notice shall be duly given or made when it shall be delivered by hand"
"The notary shall make duplicate copies of the original copy"
"The original copy shall be returned into the court"
"Power or privilege shall operate as a waiver thereof"
"If either the Seller or Buyer shall fail to appoint an accounting firm..."
"It shall not be necessary to resummon the witness"
"The sheriff shall not order the advertisement of the sale of property seized until three days"

Nierzadko SHALL występuje z PERFECT INFINITIVE (HAVE + 3 Forma), co implikuje, że dana czynność powinna lub ma być zrobiona do jakiegoś momentu w przyszłości:

"The Fund shall have performed all obligations required to be performed by it and Buyer shall have received a certificate on behalf of the Fund to such effect."

"The agreement may be terminated if the transactions contemplated hereby shall not have been consummated."


Jeszcze więcej o SHALL pisałam TUTAJ.


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