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Modal verbs used to speculate about the past


Modal verbs used to speculate about the past, czyli czasowniki modalne używane do spekulowania lub dedukcji na temat przeszłych wydarzeń. 


W takiej funkcji możemy użyć czasowników modalnych MUST, MAY, MIGHT, COULD i CAN’T. Należy do nich dodać HAVE i trzecią formę czasownika:



MODAL VERB + HAVE + Past Participle (3rd Form)




Jeśli jesteśmy pewni, że coś miało miejsce używamy MUST:

He must have committed the crime. (= I’m sure he committed the crime)
On musiał popełnić to przestępstwo.


There must have been an eartquake here.


Jeśli przypuszczamy, że coś się mogło wydarzyć stosujemy MAY (NOT), MIGHT (NOT) lub COULD:

She may not have been at home then. (= It’s possible that she wasn’t at home then)
Mogło jej nie być wtedy w domu.
They might have left earlier. (= It’s possible that she left earlier)
Oni mogli wyjść wcześniej.
He could have told her. (= It’s possible that he told her)
On mógł jej powiedzieć.


He may have seen something amazing.

She might have heard some bad news.
Something bad may have happened.



Jeśli jesteśmy pewni, że coś na pewno nie miało miejsca używamy CAN’T lub COULDN’T:

She couldn’t have done it. (= I’m sure she didn’t do it)
Ona nie mogła tego zrobić.
They can’t have known about it. (= I’m sure they didn’t know about it)
Oni nie mogli o tym wiedzieć.


He can't have had a break.
He must have been working long.

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