Used to

Jakoś tak nam Polakom trudno przejść nad tym wyrażeniem do porządku dziennego. Nie wiemy dokładnie jak je sobie przetłumaczyć, nie rozumiemy dlaczego 'oni' w ogóle zawracają sobie głowę jakimś tam used to, skoro można prawie to samo wyrazić za pomocą zwykłego czasu przeszłego...



USED TO

Najpierw kilka przykładów (postarajcie się domyślić co used to oznacza...):



Paul now (35 years old)





Paul when he was 10 years old














Paul is 35 now. He's a sales representative. He works a lot and he is very ambitious. He is married and he has two kids. He lives in the suburbs and commutes to work every day. He drives a lot. He often travels on business. Paul loves cooking and watching football matches on TV whenever he has some free time.

20 years ago he used to go to school. He didn't use to work and he used to be rather lazy. He didn't used to be married of course or have kids. He used to live with his parents in the country and he used to cycle to school every day. He used to cycle a lot. Paul used to like sweet corn and sweets. He used to have a lot of free time 20 years ago.










That's me myself in the above photos. I used to be young. Apparently I used to love running around the house. I used to wear dresses which were usually red. I used to have short hair. I have always loved working with the blackboard (and I still love it now ;). 






Warsaw
60 years ago
Now
There didn’t use to be any supermarkets in Warsaw.
There are a lot of supermarkets in Warsaw.
There used to be fewer people in Warsaw.
There are a lot of people in Warsaw.
There didn’t use to be so much traffic.
There is a lot of traffic now.




Na pewno domyśliliście się już do tej pory, że USED TO używamy do opisywania czegoś, co robiliśmy (zazwyczaj regularnie) w przeszłości, a czego nie robimy już obecnie. Możemy też opisywać w ten sposób stany rzeczy w przeszłości pod warunkiem, że uległy one zmianie do chwili obecnej. Przykład z Warszawą pokazuje, że można opisywać to jak było kiedyś a jak już dawno nie jest.




Jak zatem przetłumaczyć USED TO na język polski?


USED TO to tak jakby ZWYKŁ, ZWYKŁA lub ZWYKŁO:

I used to have short hair. = Zwykłam mieć krótkie włosy.
I used to go to school. = Zwykłam chodzić do szkoły.



USED TO nie ma formy teraźniejszej i występuje tylko w czasie przeszłym Past Simple:


USED TO
Positive sentence
I used to like sweets.
Negative sentence
I didn’t use to work.
Question
Did you use to smoke?




Podobne zastosowanie i znaczenie ma WOULD:

I would go to school when I was a child.
Susan would go skating every winter.
My grandmother would read me books before I went to sleep.

Jest tylko jedna różnica! 
WOULD nie używamy z czasownikami opisującymi stany, czyli możemy powiedzieć:

I would ski a lot.
albo-
I used to ski a lot.

ale nie możemy powiedzieć:

I would have short hair.

tylko-

I used to have short hair.


Na koniec piosenka przewodnia z USED TO w roli głównej ;)


Gotye feat. Kimbra  'Somebody I used to know'





Now and then I think of when we were together
Like when you said you felt so happy you could die
Told myself that you were right for me
But felt so lonely in your company
But that was love and it's an ache I still remember


You can get addicted to a certain kind of sadness
Like resignation to the end, always the end
So when we found that we could not make sense
Well you said that we would still be friends
But I'll admit that I was glad that it was over



But you didn't have to cut me off
Make out like it never happened and that we were nothing 
And I don't even need your love
But you treat me like a stranger and that feels so rough
No you didn't have to stoop so low
Have your friends collect your records and then change your number
I guess that I don't need that though
Now you're just somebody that I used to know
Now you're just somebody that I used to know
Now you're just somebody that I used to know



Now and then I think of all the times you screwed me over
But had me believing it was always something that I'd done
And I don't wanna live that way
Reading into every word you say
You said that you could let it go
And I wouldn't catch you hung up on somebody that you used to know



But you didn't have to cut me off
Make out like it never happened and that we were nothing 
And I don't even need your love
But you treat me like a stranger and that feels so rough
No you didn't have to stoop so low
Have your friends collect your records and then change your number
I guess that I don't need that though
Now you're just somebody that I used to know
Somebody, I used to know
(Somebody) Now you're just somebody that I used to know
Somebody, I used to know
(Somebody) Now you're just somebody that I used to know
I used to know, that I used to know, I used to know somebody



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