Angielski dla Wymagających

Third Conditional


Third conditional to trzeci okres warunkowy. O zerowym zdaniu warunkowym pisałam TU, o pierwszym TUTAJ, a o drugim TU. Dzisiaj trzeci okres warunkowy, ponoć dla uczniów najtrudniejszy.



Budowa:

IF + Past Perfect, would / might / could + have + 3rd Form* 


*3rd Form to trzecia forma czasownika, tzw. imiesłów bierny

If we had paid on time, they wouldn't have cut the electricity off.
(Gdybyśmy płacili na czas, nie odcięliby nam prądu.)

It might have been easier to talk to him if I had known him better.
(Mogło być mi łatwiej z nim rozmawiać gdybym znała go lepiej.)

If I had known what he wanted to do, I could have prevented the catastrophy.
(Gdybym wiedział, co on chce zrobić to mógłbym zapobiec katastrofie.)

  • Możemy również użyć formy ciągłej w każdej z dwóch części zdania:


If you'd been paying attention, you wouldn't have missed the turning.
(Gdybyś uważał to nie przegapiłbyś zakrętu.)

You would've been waiting there for hours if that taxi hadn't come along.
(Czekałbyś godzinami gdyby ta taksówka nie przyjechała.)

  • Zamiast typowego zdania podrzędnego (tego z if) możemy zbudować zdanie z wyrażeniem przyimkowym:


But for his constant complaining, we might have liked him.
(Gdyby nie jego ciągłe narzekanie to bysmy go polubili.)

I wouldn't have done it without asking for permission.
(Nie zrobiłbym tego bez poproszenia o pozwolenie.)

  • Jeśli chcemy aby nasze zdanie warunkowe zabrzmiało nieco bardziej oficjalnie, stosujemy inwersję:


If it hadn't been for his fast thinking, we would have fallen into the river. (bez inwersji)
Had it not been for his fast thinking, we would have fallen into the river. (z inwersją)



Użycie i znaczenie:

Trzeciego zdania warunkowego używamy do:


  • opisania nierzeczywistego, wyimaginowanego wydarzenia w przeszłości, tzn. zakładamy co by się kiedyś w przeszłości stało gdyby..., np.:
Nie wzięłam kluczy i nie mogłam się dostać do mieszkania, więc mówię:

If I had taken the keys, I would have got home.
(Gdybym wzięła klucze, dostałabym się do domu.)

  • bardzo często to gdybanie, co by było gdyby..? wyraża tez nasz żal lub krytykę:
I could have got the job if i had done better during the interview.
(Mogłem dostać ta pracę gdybym lepiej wypadł na rozmowie o pracę.)



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